While many Latina women work outside the home in their countries of origin, their efforts in the U.S. often yield more economic benefits.
The majority of those workers are women, 4.2 million are Latinas, and over 38 percent of Latinos who would benefit are parents. Although a minimum wage hike wouldn’t fully solve the problem, it is a step in the right direction. NWLC reports that Latinas who work full-time, year-round jobs and also have a bachelor’s degree generally only earn about $52,037 per year. A White, non-Hispanic man with only an associate’s degree, on the other hand, generally makes $54,620. This comparison offers a bleak perspective of the position that Latina women are in – that despite having more education, some Latina women still earn lower wages and must work longer to make the same amount of money.
According to some estimates, Latinas earnjust 55 centsfor every dollar earned by non-Hispanic white men. Furthermore, the share of Latina women earning at or below minimum wage is actually increasing, tripling from 2007 to 2012, and contributing to an overall poverty rate of 27.9% —close to three timesthat of non-Latina white women.
Additionally, due to the high risk of diabetes in all Latino people, the risk of family members having the condition may be high as well. Diabetes of all types tends to affect Latinx people at younger ages than it does other populations, so Latinx women should talk with their physician about their risk before getting pregnant. Latinx women are twice as likely to develop depression as compared to Latinx men, white populations or African-American populations3. Research also indicates that employed Latinx women are more stressed than unemployed ones4.
These prestressor patterns presumably reflect the population’s adaptation to an environment possibly interrupted by the stressor. Our theory assumes that the policy and regulatory environment of the Obama administration constituted, in part, the environment to which Latina women, among others, had adapted for nearly 8 years and that Trump promised to change if elected. That is, we argue that the policy and regulatory environment promised under President Trump would be perceived as more hostile to Latina women when compared with the policy and regulatory environment they experienced under President Obama.
A concept known as the “social identity theory” explains how people derive their identity from the groups they are welcomed to based on commonalities. There are in-groups and out-groups, and people find worth in being in those in-groups. For the most part, researchers have concentrated on Caucasian girls and women from middle- to upper-class backgrounds, with few doctors even equipped with the language and questions to ask Latina sufferers. But even though researchers and physicians seem to overwhelmingly disregard Latinas in their work, eating disorders do not discriminate.
Another theory is that women are choosing to forgo careers in STEM to attain better work-family balance—rather than being pushed out by bias. Several new studies add to the growing body of evidence that documents the role of gender bias in driving women out of science careers. A 2014 study found that both men and women were twice as likely to hire a man for a job that required math. LATINA Style Magazine is the most influential publication reaching the contemporary Hispanic woman. LATINA Style broke new ground in 1994 by launching the first national magazine dedicated to the needs and concerns of the contemporary Latina professional working woman and the Latina business owner in the United States.
If a worker is underpaid in one job, and their next job bases their new salary on previous salary, then workers who are more likely to face discriminatory pay at any given employment may face the cumulative effects of this discrimination throughout their careers. Both collective bargaining and banning salary history seek to balance information asymmetries that benefit employers. The intersectional structural barriers faced by Hispanic women that lead to reduced wages affect both their own lifetime earnings, as well as the economic security of their families.
Latinx cultural values can trigger mental health issues in the lives of Latinx women and cause them to underutilize mental health services as compared to the general population. About one in four Latina teenagers have thought about committing suicide, a rate higher than Latino teenage counterparts, according to Salud America! 6 These rates are not only due to racial and gender discrimination, but are also a result of Latinx cultural values such familisimo and marianismo7. Familisimo, although it emphasizes a strong family unit, can inhibit Latina teenagers from embracing their own unique independent identity8. Marianismo, rooted in Catholicism’s admiration of the Virgin Mary, is the belief that women must be pure, self sacrificing, pleasant, nurturing and demure9.
- Domestic issues among immigrants are potentially exacerbated by language barriers, economic dependence, low levels of education and income, poor knowledge of services, undocumented status, lack of a support system, and the immigration experience in general.
- This autonomy is particularly important considering some researchers believe that Latinas may be particularly vulnerable to domestic violence issues.
- These domestic abuse struggles result from a combination of violent partners and bureaucratic complications of the US immigration system.
- This violence can manifest in different ways, and is often difficult to diagnose when it the result of verbal threats rather than physical abuse.
- Oftentimes, it is threats of deportation that influence Latina women to keep silent about their situation.
- According to the Rutgers School of Social Work, around 17% of Latina immigrants are victims of Domestic Violence.
None of these policy interventions is a silver bullet on its own, but together they would support greater economic opportunity for Latina workers and all other workers. As the wage decomposition in this brief demonstrates, the wage gap for Hispanic women is primarily caused by unexplained discrimination, followed by workplace segregation and restricted access to educational opportunities. Access to training and apprenticeship is especially important for underrepresented groups.
Given small sample sizes, the results for Puerto Rican, Cuban, South American, and “other origin” Hispanic women are not statistically significant at a p value of 0.05. Conversely, labor force participation can be strengthened by efforts to raise Latinas’ earnings in the labor market. Raised in a single parent household in the Bronx, Sotomayor went on to graduate summa cum laude from Princeton, go to Yale Law School, and from there become, first a U.S.
Others are out of the workforce due to individual or family challenges that keep them from working, such as health or mental health issues, or are working in informal jobs or are undocumented and thus do not qualify for unemployment insurance if laid off. In February 2020, about 5 million people were actively seeking work but not employed.
Protesters Gather In La Mesa To Demand Justice For Women Of Color
Previously, Ambar worked as chief external relations officer at Hiawatha Academies. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 32.2 percent of Latina women work in the service sector, compared with only 20 percent of white women, and service workers are almost 20 percent less likely to have either paid sick leave or retirement benefits. Latina-owned businesses are concentrated in the industries of health care at 20 percent, administrative services at 18 percent, retail at 10 percent, professional at 9 percent, and real estate at 6 percent. Something that could help is a minimum wage increase, which would benefit a large amount of Latina workers. The Economic Policy Institute estimates that if the minimum wage were increased to $12 per hour by 2020 – a proposal introduced in Congress that lawmakers ultimately didn’t take up – then more than 35 million workers would receive a raise.
Policymakers who oversee apprenticeship registrations can both encourage increased equity in current apprenticeships, as well as expanded apprenticeships into new industries and occupations. All the while, policymakers must ensure that these apprenticeships continue to be paths to training while earning living wages. Because Hispanic women still face limited benefits in terms of the wage gap for getting a college education after graduating from high school, https://tmfouzy.sg/2020/03/10/the-brand-new-angle-on-caribbean-women-just-produced/ just encouraging higher education will not resolve the gender wage gap. Hispanic workers are one of the fastest-growing populations in the labor force, yet many are still held back by structural disparities and discrimination that result in low wages and other negative labor market outcomes. In addition to overt wage discrimination, the explained portion of the wage gap is largely caused by structural barriers that reduce Latinas’ expected earnings.
The Gap Hurts Women And Families
The largest explained causes of the white-men-to-Hispanic-women gap include the segregation of Hispanic women into lower-paying occupations and lower-paying industries and the disparity in access to education and skills training for many Hispanic women . Although feminists regularly cite the gender wage gap as a scourge holding back women in the workplace, in fact for Latinas, the gap is much worse.